Newcastle upon Tyne (often shortened to Newcastle) is a City status in the United Kingdom and metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. Situated on the north bank of the River Tyne, the city developed in the area that was the location of the Roman Empire settlement called Pons Aelius, though it owes its name to the Newcastle Castle built in 1080, by Robert Curthose, the eldest son of William the Conqueror. The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade and it later became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. These industries have since experienced severe decline and closure, and the city today is largely a business and cultural centre, with a particular reputation for nightlife.
Like most cities, Newcastle has a diverse cross section, from areas of poverty. Retrieved 24 November 2008. to areas of affluence. ranging from the bustling, historic city centre and its Quayside , to the great shipbuilding and engineering works on Elswick, from working class Byker to middle class Jesmond and Heaton , a leading brand of beer, Newcastle United F.C., a Premier League team, and the Tyne Bridge. It has hosted the world's most popular half marathon, the Great North Run, since it began in 1981.
The city is the List of urban areas in England by population; the larger Tyneside, of which Newcastle forms part, is the List of conurbations in the United Kingdom. The regional nickname for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie.